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Better access to mental health care and the failure of the Medicare principle of universality

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Australia’s national health insurance scheme, Medicare (introduced in 1975 as Medibank), was envisioned to deliver the “most equitable and efficient means of providing health insurance coverage for all Australians”.1 Questions have been raised as to whether, 40 years after its introduction, Medicare is equitable, particularly in terms of access to mental health services.2,3 Investigations over more than 70 years in various parts of the world, including Australia, have consistently found greater levels of psychiatric disorder in areas with greater socioeconomic disadvantage.46

In November 2006, the Australian Government introduced the Better Access to Mental Health Care initiative (Better Access), consisting of new Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) items to improve access to psychiatrists, psychologists and general practitioners.7 Evaluation of the program, supported by Commonwealth government funding, highlighted the success of Better Access in increasing psychological service use. For example, the number of allied mental health services accessed almost doubled in the first year, and most users were new (68% in 2008 and 57% in 2009).8,