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[Comment] A breakthrough urine-based diagnostic test for HIV-associated tuberculosis

At the 44th World Health Assembly in 1991, the burgeoning, and now modern day, tuberculosis pandemic was brought to the world’s attention,1 reporting that 6 million new tuberculosis cases and 3 million associated deaths were occurring worldwide each year. The global HIV pandemic was recognised as a key factor fuelling the deterioration in tuberculosis control, and such were the grim portents of the emerging tuberculosis and HIV co-epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa that, in 1991, three London academics posed the pointed question, “Is Africa lost?”2 Now, almost a quarter of a century after tuberculosis was declared “a global emergency”, roughly 9·6 million new cases of tuberculosis and 1·5 million deaths (0·4 million deaths in HIV-positive individuals) still occur annually.