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[Comment] Age of PISCES: stem-cell clinical trials in stroke

Laboratory studies and limited clinical trials over the past two decades have shown feasibility and safety, and have revealed potential mechanisms of action of stem-cell therapy in ischaemic stroke. Despite consistent efficacy in animal studies, functional benefits after transplantation of stem cells remain to be shown unequivocally in stroke patients.1 Translation of stem-cell therapy from the laboratory to the clinic has been approached with ample caution, in part due to the largely negative outcomes for several stroke therapeutics in human beings compared with those in animals.