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[Comment] Antidotes for anticoagulants: a long way to go

Non-vitamin-K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), namely the direct factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, and betrixaban and the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran, were first successfully developed for short-term anticoagulation after high-risk surgical procedures and prevention of thromboembolic events. The drugs then proved to be successful as long-term anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation, and are now used for an increasing range of indications.1 Although concerns have been raised regarding drug interactions and liberal use in patients with renal insufficiency,2 the triumphant rise of NOACs could be about to escalate as antidotes to stop inadvertent bleeding are developed.