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[Comment] Bioengineered vascular grafts off the shelf

The management of end-stage renal disease is a worldwide health-care challenge. In the USA alone, more than 650 000 patients have end-stage renal disease and the number of cases is expected to rise in the coming years.1 For haemodialysis treatment of these patients, autologous arteriovenous fistulas are the preferred approach for vascular access.2 If this fails, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) grafts are often used as a synthetic alternative.3 However, ePTFE graft implantation bears a considerable risk of infection, intimal hyperplasia, and thrombosis.