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[Comment] Doxorubicin in stage II–III, intermediate-risk Wilms’ tumour

In The Lancet, Kathy Pritchard-Jones and colleagues1 from the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) report results from their Wilms’ tumour 2001 randomised, controlled, non-inferiority study. They recruited 583 children aged 6 months to 18 years with stage II–III, histological intermediate-risk Wilms’ tumour who had received 4 weeks of preoperative chemotherapy with vincristine and actinomycin D. They randomly assigned the children (1:1) by a minimisation technique to receive either postnephrectomy combination chemotherapy with vincristine and actinomycin D alone—the experimental treatment—or these two drugs plus doxorubicin (a cardiotoxic chemotherapeutic drug),2–4 the standard treatment.