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[Comment] Genetics and neonatal diabetes: towards precision medicine

Diabetes is a lifelong chronic disease. During the past 100 years, its diagnosis has been based on measurements of raised blood glucose concentrations. In the 1960s, diabetes was subclassified based on age at onset and need for insulin treatment (ie, juvenile or maturity onset; insulin or non-insulin-requiring diabetes). Because diabetes was believed to be an inherited disease, much hope was placed on the identification of genetic markers that would help to diagnose diabetic subgroups. Although investigators in the 1970s noted that type 1 diabetes was strongly associated with the HLA locus on chromosome 6, determination of HLA genotypes did not add substantial diagnostic value because of their high prevalence.