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[Comment] Genetics and phenotypes in inflammatory bowel disease

Inflammatory bowel diseases, encompassing Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, have long been recognised as very heterogeneous diseases at the clinical level. Farmer and colleagues1 were among the first to report that location of disease was a major driver for disease presentation, complications, and rates of surgery. More recently, the Montreal and Paris classifications (ie, modified Montreal classification for use in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease) have tried to standardise clinical phenotypes further, acknowledging that age at diagnosis, and location and extent of disease in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, and disease behaviour in Crohn’s disease, are the main factors affecting disease course and prognosis.