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[Comment] Immune oncology in hepatocellular carcinoma—hype and hope

The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib was the first systemic agent to show a significant improvement in overall survival for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, thereby introducing molecularly targeted therapy into this therapeutic field of unmet needs.1 Overall survival benefits are modest, however, and all subsequent agents tested in phase 3 randomised controlled trials (RCTs), both in first-line and second-line settings, have been unable to reach or improve on the magnitude of benefit obtained with sorafenib.