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[Comment] Improving outcomes in dialysis fistulae

One of the great medical successes in recent years has been the reduction in the number of patients waiting for a kidney transplant. In 2009, 7190 people were on the waiting list in the UK, and in June, 2016, this number had decreased to 5116.1 Nevertheless, many people on the list can expect to wait for years, and many patients with end-stage renal failure are never suitable for transplantation because of comorbidities and remain instead on dialysis. As such, a substantial demand exists for dialysis access surgery; in the USA, 105 923 patients initiate haemodialysis annually2 and in the UK, more than 4000 vascular access procedures are done each year to facilitate haemodialysis.