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[Comment] Is organ preservation in rectal cancer ready for prime time?

Each year, over 8500 patients in the UK are diagnosed with rectal cancer. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery reduces the risk of local recurrence by downstaging the tumour and results in cure for many patients.1,2 In 2004, Angelita Habr-Gama and colleagues3 reported their results based on 10 years of experience of avoiding surgery after chemoradiotherapy in patients with clinical complete response (cCR). Instead of surgery, they successfully performed clinical surveillance by endoscopy and digital rectal examination.