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[Comment] Mesenchymal stem cells for fistulising Crohn’s disease

Anti-tumour necrosis factor-α antibodies are the first-line treatment for fistulising Crohn’s disease.1 Nevertheless, the outcome in terms of sustained fistula closure is unsatisfactory, and a substantial number of patients need proctectomy.2 Additionally, if considering the possible occurrence of opportunistic infections and malignancy, the balance between risks and benefits of biological drugs remains challenging. Also, the rationale underpinning the clinical use of anti-tumour necrosis factor-α antibodies is to shut down the inflammatory response rather than support active tolerance or promote tissue regeneration.