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[Comment] Role for anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitor in advanced urothelial carcinoma

Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expressed on the tumour cell surface, or on neighbouring host immune cells in the tumour microenvironment, engages the programmed death 1 (PD-1) receptor on activated cytotoxic T cells and thus downregulates the tumour-directed host immune response. Dismantling of this negative feedback loop is at the core of novel cancer immunotherapeutic strategies. Anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown good efficacy against several types of solid tumours in patients with advanced melanoma, non-small-cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and some types of colon cancer.