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[Comment] Social rank: a risk factor whose time has come?

56 million people died in 2015, many prematurely and most (71%) from non-communicable diseases (NCDs).1 Yet NCDs were absent from the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which expired in 2015.2 Recognising this absence, WHO has set member states a goal to reduce premature mortality from the major NCDs by 25% by 2025 (the 25 × 25 goal).3 To achieve this goal, WHO urges action on seven established NCD risk factors.3 In The Lancet Silvia Stringhini and colleagues4 argue that these risk factors are not enough.