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[Comment] Time for a prepublication culture in clinical research?

In 1969, Franz Ingelfinger wrote in The New England Journal of Medicine about the journal’s “definition of a ‘sole contribution’”.1 The journal’s masthead had stated a clear condition for any manuscript’s consideration: “Articles are accepted for consideration with the understanding that they are contributed for publication solely in this journal.”1 In other words, a given paper could be published exclusively in The New England Journal of Medicine, and nowhere else. This policy, known as the “Ingelfinger rule”, has had a major role in determining the ethos of publication in clinical research, and was revisited at least three times.