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[Comment] Towards effective empirical treatment for Helicobacter pylori eradication

The discovery of Helicobacter pylori infection as a cause of peptic ulcer disease gave hope that its eradication would be easy with antibiotics. The same bright future was also expected for gastric cancers when evidence1 pointed to H pylori infection as the essential risk factor, suggesting that prevention would finally be possible. However, several decades after the outstanding achievement of Warren and Marshall,1 it has become clear that H pylori eradication is not easy to achieve. Why is this? H pylori is located in in the stomach lining in an environment that is not favourable to antibiotic activity because of its acidity.