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[Comment] Towards therapeutic vaccination against cervical precancer?

In The Lancet, Cornelia Trimble and colleagues1 report the results of a double-blind, randomised controlled trial of therapeutic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Three doses of an intramuscular HPV-16 and HPV-18 plasmid vaccine significantly increased histological regression of cervical precancers caused by HPV types 16 and 18. At 36 weeks after the first dose, regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3 was 48·2% compared with a spontaneous rate in the placebo group of 30·0% (difference 18·2%, 95% CI 1·3–34·4).