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[Comment] Treatment of bacterial vaginosis to prevent preterm birth

Preterm birth—the birth of an infant after less than 37 weeks’ gestation—is the most common cause of neonatal mortality and the second most common cause of death in children younger than 5 years, worldwide.1 Chorioamnionitis is a cause of preterm birth, and bacterial cultures of the chorioamnionitic membranes are often positive for vaginal organisms, particularly those associated with bacterial vaginosis.2 Bacterial vaginosis is a common dysbiosis of vaginal bacteria, characterised by diverse, predominantly anaerobic bacteria and relatively low numbers of Lactobacillus species.