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[Comment] Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil: a scientific agenda

Since 1981, the Brazilian population has had dengue fever epidemics and all control efforts have been unsuccessful.1 In 2014, chikungunya fever was reported for the first time in the country.2 In 2015, the occurrence of Zika virus was also reported,3 along with an increase of microcephaly and brain damage in newborn babies.4,5 The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the most conventional vector of these three viral infections and is widely disseminated in a great part of urban Brazil. Brazilian public health authorities declared a National Public Health Emergency on Nov 11, 2015, and intensified the vector control campaign to tackle the epidemic.