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[Correspondence] Associations of fats and carbohydrates with cardiovascular disease and mortality—PURE and simple?

As intake of dietary fat remains a topic of intense debate,1,2 both in the scientific field and the media, epidemics of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease in some low-income countries threaten to become pandemic.3 Scholars, including the authors of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study,4 warn that guidelines on dietary fat have been made on the basis of observational data, which should not be relied on. In India, clinical and public health professionals trying to prevent and control type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease have developed guidelines and interventions using risk factors, including diet and fats (especially from cheap, reheated oils).