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[Correspondence] Ceftolozane-tazobactam versus levofloxacin in urinary tract infection – Authors’ reply

We thank Tom Boyles, Jan Kielstein and Julius Schmidt, and Ciprian Popa and colleagues, for their comments in response to our Article.1 Our trial used a study design that tested intravenous-only therapy, which had both regulatory and clinical precedence. We agree with Boyles that antibiotic stewardship is an important issue and that specific collateral effects can be assessed in such studies, as has been shown in two randomised trials assessing bowel colonisation with resistant Gram-negative bacilli after antimicrobial therapy of intra-abdominal infections with ertapenem versus ceftriaxone-metronidazole.