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[Correspondence] Happiness, health, and mortality – Authors’ reply

Results from our prospective UK Million Women Study1 have shown that happiness itself has no direct effect on mortality (except insofar as unhappiness makes people do unhealthy things, such as smoking). The widespread but mistaken belief that unhappiness and stress directly cause ill health has come partly from studies that confuse cause and effect, as does some of the Correspondence that arose from our Article.1