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[Correspondence] Saving the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action: full of hope or just hopeless?

On July 14, 2015, Iran, the P5+1 countries (China, France, Russia, UK, USA, and Germany), and the European Union signed a landmark nuclear agreement that officially went into effect on Jan 16, 2016.1 Under the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA; also known as the Iran nuclear deal), Iran was to put severe limitations on its nuclear programme in exchange for the removal of international sanctions. After signing this agreement, Iranian scientists considered it an historic opportunity for the scientific community, and they became hopeful that lifting the sanctions could gradually help their scientific advancements in many ways.