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[Correspondence] The first recorded use of microscopy in medicine: Pope Innocent XII’s autopsy report

In the history of medicine, the discovery and the use of the microscope in clinical practice and biomedical research was a revolutionary achievement. The cultural shift from the traditional macroscopic necroscopy to a microscopic and ultrastructural perspective was essential for the development of modern pathology and for recognising physiopathological mechanisms of several diseases. Physicians started to use the microscope during the 17th century, but they initially limited its use to anatomical, and not pathological, studies.