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[Editorial] Adversity in childhood: how the past defines the future

Nearly two decades ago, the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study broke new ground, showing a strong relationship between ACEs and health-risk behaviour and disease in adulthood. The findings of this large-scale study have been affirmed by smaller local studies across the world. On Nov 1, Public Health Wales published the last of three reports from a study on the effects on ACEs on the health and wellbeing of adults in Wales. This report focuses on the relationship between ACEs and chronic disease.