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[Editorial] Diabetes: a dynamic disease

The distinction between type 1 and type 2 diabetes was described as early as 500–600 BC by Indian physicians Sushruta and Charaka—type 1 being associated with onset in youth, and type 2 linked to obesity. Today, diabetes is recognised as a complex and heterogeneous disease that can affect people at different life stages. As such, the classic phenotypes of age of onset and metabolic features that once helped to define the types of diabetes are now far less useful clinical indicators. Modern appreciation of the heterogeneity of diabetes is not simply a product of a deeper understanding of the genetics, risk factors, and pathophysiology of the disease.