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[Editorial] HIV: the question is not when to treat, but how to treat

Last week, WHO expedited release of their Guideline on when to start antiretroviral therapy and on pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV, ahead of the updated comprehensive guidelines scheduled for publication later this year. The early-release guideline recommends immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all individuals living with HIV, irrespective of age and CD4 cell count. Previously, ART has been recommended only for individuals with CD4 cell counts less than 500 cells per μL (in addition to pregnant women, discordant partners, and those with other conditions such as active tuberculosis).