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[Essay] Russian medicine: trying to catch up on scientific evidence and human values

At the beginning of the 20th century, medicine as an academic discipline and a vocational training was quite similar in Russia and in western Europe. Most professors in Russian medical faculties had some international training. Pirogov, Sechenov, Mechnikoff, and Pavlov, just to name a few, were not only exceptional scientists but typical with their international training and research experience. Yet medicine as a service to the public was underdeveloped. The access to a nurse or doctor was very limited, as described depressingly clearly in Anton Checkhov’s short stories.