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Long-term health and wellbeing of people affected by the 2002 Bali bombing

The 2002 Bali bombing resulted in the deaths of over 200 people, including 88 Australians and 35 Indonesians, making it the single worst act of terrorism to have affected either country.1 A further 209 people were injured, including 66 Australians who suffered severe burns and complex shrapnel wounds.2,3

Terrorism exposure may have significant long-term effects on the mental health and wellbeing of survivors. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most common psychological condition observed in the aftermath of such events, but it often coexists with depression, functional impairment or substance misuse.4,5 Few studies have examined the long-term effects on terrorism survivors, although one large study found increases in PTSD between 3 and 5 years after the September 11 attacks.6,7 Risk factors included direct exposure (proximity, injury, witnessing horror), incident-related bereavement and low social…