Non-pharmacological biological treatment approaches to difficult-to-treat depression
This is a republished version of an article previously published in MJA Open
It is well recognised that depression frequently does not respond to standard pharmaceutical treatment and psychotherapy techniques.1,2 Non-pharmacological biological treatments have a long history of use in difficult-to-treat psychiatric illnesses such as depression. With increasing recognition of the frequency and impact of difficult-to-treat depression and a variety of technological developments, the past 10 years have seen a dramatic increase in interest in development of novel brain stimulation techniques. Here, I provide an overview of the characteristics and current status of development of non-pharmacological biological treatments for depression (Box).