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[Perspectives] Trepanned cranium

Trepanned skulls and crania have long appalled and fascinated their observers. Some skulls with multiple trepan sites, performed over a period of time and showing long-term wound healing, pose intriguing questions. These can be hard to answer when the human remains date from a time or culture about which little can be known directly of medical practices, ideas of disease, or social structures of care. Trepanation has a notable history in the western medical tradition, hallowed by Hippocratic and Galenic textual discussions and Roman instruments.