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[Review] Mitochondrial medicine in the omics era

Mitochondria are dynamic bioenergetic organelles whose maintenance requires around 1500 proteins from two genomes. Mutations in either the mitochondrial or nuclear genome can disrupt a plethora of cellular metabolic and homoeostatic functions. Mitochondrial diseases represent one of the most common and severe groups of inherited genetic disorders, characterised by clinical, biochemical, and genetic heterogeneity, diagnostic odysseys, and absence of disease-modifying curative therapies. This Review aims to discuss recent advances in mitochondrial biology and medicine arising from widespread use of high-throughput omics technologies, and also includes a broad discussion of emerging therapies for mitochondrial disease.

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