[Seminar] Primary glomerulonephritides
Most glomerulonephritides, even the more common types, are rare diseases. They are nevertheless important since they frequently affect young people, often cannot be cured, and can lead to chronic kidney disease, including end-stage renal failure, with associated morbidity and cost. For example, in young adults, IgA nephropathy is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease. In this Seminar, we summarise existing knowledge of clinical signs, pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment of glomerulonephritides, with a particular focus on data published between 2008 and 2015, and the most common European glomerulonephritis types, namely IgA nephropathy, membranous glomerulonephritis, minimal change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and the rare complement-associated glomerulonephritides such as dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis.