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[Series] Management of patients at risk of acute kidney injury

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a multifaceted syndrome that occurs in different settings. The course of AKI can be variable, from single hit and complete recovery, to multiple hits resulting in end-stage renal disease. No interventions to improve outcomes of established AKI have yet been developed, so prevention and early diagnosis are key. Awareness campaigns and education for health-care professionals on diagnosis and management of AKI—with attention to avoidance of volume depletion, hypotension, and nephrotoxic interventions—coupled with electronic early warning systems where available can improve outcomes.