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[Series] Molecular alterations in triple-negative breast cancer—the road to new treatment strategies

Triple-negative breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and specific therapies have not been available for a long time. Therefore, conventional chemotherapy is still considered the clinical state of the art. Different subgroups of triple-negative breast cancer have been identified on the basis of protein expression, mRNA signatures, and genomic alterations. Important elements of triple-negative breast cancer biology include high proliferative activity, an increased immunological infiltrate, a basal-like and a mesenchymal phenotype, and deficiency in homologous recombination, which is in part associated with loss of BRCA1 or BRCA2 function.