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[Series] The evolution of modern respiratory care for preterm infants

Preterm birth rates are rising, and many preterm infants have breathing difficulty after birth. Treatments for infants with prolonged breathing difficulty include oxygen therapy, exogenous surfactant, various modes of respiratory support, and postnatal corticosteroids. In this Series paper, we review the history of neonatal respiratory care and its effect on long-term outcomes, and we outline the future direction of the research field. The delivery and monitoring of oxygen therapy remains controversial, despite being in use for more than 50 years.

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