Sky-high Indigenous imprisonment rates a health disaster
Imprisonment is rarely good for health, particularly if you are an Indigenous Australian.
But, tragically, Indigenous people are far more likely to be locked up than other Australians, exacerbating health problems and sending many into a downward spiral of illness and premature death.
The figures are stark.
In 1991, the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody identified extraordinary rates of incarceration among Indigenous Australians compared with the rest of the community, and established a link with poor general and mental health.
But, despite the Royal Commission’s recommendations, the situation has got significantly worse.
Among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, the adult imprisonment rate soared 57 per cent between 2000 and 2013, while juvenile detention rates increased sharply between 2000-01 and 2007-08, and have fluctuated ever since at around 24 times the rate for non-Indigenous youth.
Currently, almost a third of all prisoners are Aboriginal, including 48 per cent of juveniles held in custody.
Not only that, but the rate of reoffending is astronomical. In fact, repeat offending and re-incarceration is a large contributor to this high rate of imprisonment.
Shocking though these statistics are, they do not begin to describe the suffering and distress experienced by incarcerated Indigenous people, their families and communities.
Mental illness and mental health problems, including alcohol and drug abuse, contribute significantly to their rates of imprisonment and recidivism.
Being incarcerated, in turn, exacerbates existing conditions in prisoners. And, without appropriate and effective treatment within prison, mental illness and mental health issues are a major factor in poor outcomes for people released from prison, including suicide, death from overdose or injury and reoffending.
Social disadvantage and a history of upheaval culminating in trauma and grief clearly contribute to the high level of imprisonment among Indigenous Australians.
Many studies published since 2000 have highlighted that Aboriginal people already have a higher prevalence of significant psychological distress when compared to the non-Aboriginal population, disrupting social and emotional wellbeing and causing post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and substance abuse.
Alcohol is well-known as a common precursor to offending among Indigenous Australians, with indications that it could be a factor in up to 90 per cent of all Indigenous contacts with the justice system.
Once incarcerated, Aboriginal prisoners are at greater risk of developing or exacerbating a mental illness. Ninety-three per cent of Aboriginal women in jail, and 81 per cent of men, have some form of mental illness. Altogether, 30 per cent of Aboriginal women and 20 per cent of Aboriginal men in jail have attempted suicide, and 33 per cent of Aboriginal women and 12 per cent of Aboriginal men suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder.
It is apparent that there is a complete lack of appropriate services to meet complex social, cultural and health needs.
A clearer understanding of some of the drivers of incarceration of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men and women is needed, as are better interventions through culturally appropriate health and disability services before entering custody, during imprisonment, at the time of release and post-release.
There are several things that can and should be done to end this vicious cycle of illness, abuse and incarceration for Indigenous people, including making it much easier for Indigenous offenders to get into diversion programs for alcohol and drug-related offences; establishing Indigenous-specific diversion programs linked to Aboriginal community controlled services; improving the level of health services for Indigenous prisoners; comprehensive health screening for those entering prison, and channelling them into appropriate treatment; and research and develop performance indicators to guide effective health services for Indigenous offenders.
These matters will be considered in the AMA’s Indigenous Health Report Card, which will be released later this year.