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Vitamin D and health in pregnancy, infants, children and adolescents in Australia and New Zealand: a position statement

Low vitamin D levels are a major public health concern across the lifespan. This position statement of the Australian and New Zealand Bone and Mineral Society and Osteoporosis Australia accompanies a position statement on vitamin D and health in adults1 and updates a 2006 position statement.2 It is intended for primary care providers and specialists involved in the care of children and pregnant women, and is endorsed by the Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, Royal Australasian College of Physicians and Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. The consensus process is described in Box 1.

Physiology

A summary of vitamin D physiology is provided in the adult vitamin D position statement.1 During pregnancy, alterations to vitamin D and calcium homoeostasis allow calcium transfer to the developing fetus.3 Maternal intestinal calcium absorption is doubled, serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) levels increase and parathyroid hormone…

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